Sunday, March 22, 2020

Sports Role in Your Life free essay sample

What role do sports play in your life? An athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature To the typical person this Is what a sport Is; however I have a different Interpretation of the word. Throughout the years of my life sports have transformed from an extra curricular activity to a way of life. What sport you play defines who you are as a person and enhances your credibility in a social setting. Also it demonstrates certain traits that you have acquired through the experience.Intellectual, endurance, determination, competition, dedication, cohesion, pride and hope Are inspirational words I would use to define what a sport means. Each definition has a direct relation to my experiences playing the sport of field hockey and soccer. Being enrolled as a young child has given me the opportunity to be exposed to a productive way to have a healthy lifestyle. We will write a custom essay sample on Sports Role in Your Life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Today the world Is a competitive place -sports taught me to strive and compete for what I want out of life.By being Introduced to competition at a young age, I am able to pursue my dreams and prepare me for pot secondary education. This makes me a stronger person by giving me the skills to prosper in todays society. Being healthy is a big part of my life. In my youth sports was essential contributor to mum lifestyle of exercise and eating right. As well as introducing me to alternative ways to stay fit. Sports have not only influenced me physical but spiritually also.If you re satisfied with yourself on the outside it influences you to have a positive outlook of yourself on the inside. This can lead to finding true happiness. Stress Is a mall contributor to casualties In North America. The highest proscribed medicine In Canada Is Anta Depressants such as Approach. These types of drugs are highly proscribed to teens. For me I use sports as my anta depressant. Being able to control each executed move on the field and by being given a challenge calms my soul.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Environmental Determinism Definition

Environmental Determinism Definition Throughout the study of geography, there have been some different approaches to explaining the development of the worlds societies and cultures. One that received much prominence in geographic history but has declined in recent decades of academic study is environmental determinism. Environmental Determinism Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment, most notably its physical factors such as landforms and climate, determines the patterns of human culture and societal development. Environmental determinists believe that ecological, climatic, and geographical factors alone are responsible for human cultures and individual decisions. Also, social conditions have virtually no impact on cultural development. The main argument of environmental determinism states that an areas physical characteristics like climate have a substantial impact on the psychological outlook of its inhabitants. These different outlooks then spread throughout a population and help define the overall behavior and culture of a society. For instance, it was said that areas in the tropics were less developed than higher latitudes because the continuously warm weather there made it easier to survive and thus, people living there did not work as hard to ensure their survival. Another example of environmental determinism would be the theory that island nations have unique cultural traits solely because of their isolation from continental societies. Environmental Determinism and Early Geography Although environmental determinism is a relatively recent approach to formal geographic study, its origins go back to ancient times. Climatic factors, for example, were used by Strabo, Plato, and Aristotle to explain why the Greeks were so much more developed in the early ages than societies in hotter and colder climates. Additionally, Aristotle came up with his climate classification system to explain why people were limited to settlement in certain areas of the globe.​​ Other early scholars also used environmental determinism to explain not only the culture of a society but the reasons behind the physical characteristics of a societys people. Al-Jahiz, a writer from East Africa, for instance, cited environmental factors as the origin of different skin colors. He believed that the darker skin of many Africans and various birds, mammals, and insects was a direct result of the prevalence of black basalt rocks on the Arabian Peninsula. Ibn Khaldun, an Arab sociologist, and scholar was officially known as one of the first environmental determinists. He lived from 1332 to 1406, during which time he wrote a complete world history and explained that the hot climate of Sub-Saharan Africa caused dark human skin.​ Environmental Determinism and Modern Geography Environmental determinism rose to its most prominent stage in modern geography beginning in the late 19th Century when it was revived by the German geographer Friedrich Rtzel and became the central theory in the discipline. Rtzels theory came about following Charles Darwins Origin of Species in 1859 and was heavily influenced by evolutionary biology and the impact a person’s environment has on their cultural evolution. Environmental determinism then became popular in the United States in the early 20th Century when Rtzel’s student, Ellen Churchill Semple, a professor at Clark University in Worchester, Massachusetts, introduced the theory there. Like Rtzel’s initial ideas, Semple’s were also influenced by evolutionary biology. Another one of Rtzel’s students, Ellsworth Huntington, also worked on expanding the theory around the same time as Semple. Huntingtons work though, led to a subset of environmental determinism, called climatic determinism in the early 1900s. His theory stated that the economic development in a country could be predicted based on its distance from the equator. He said temperate climates with short growing seasons stimulate achievement, economic growth, and efficiency. The ease of growing things in the tropics, on the other hand, hindered their advancement. The Decline of Environmental Determinism Despite its success in the early 1900s, environmental determinism’s popularity began to decline in the 1920s as its claims were often found to be wrong. Also, critics claimed it was racist and perpetuated imperialism. Carl Sauer, for instance, began his critiques in 1924 and said that environmental determinism led to premature generalizations about an area’s culture and did not allow for results based on direct observation or other research. As a result of his and others criticisms, geographers developed the theory of environmental possibilism to explain cultural development. Environmental possibilism was set forth by the French geographer Paul Vidal de la Blanche and stated that the environment sets limitations for cultural development, but it does not wholly define culture. Culture is instead defined by the opportunities and decisions that humans make in response to dealing with such limitations. By the 1950s, environmental determinism was almost entirely replaced in geography by environmental possibilism, effectively ending its prominence as the central theory in the discipline. Regardless of its decline, however, environmental determinism was an important component of geographic history as it initially represented an attempt by early geographers to explain the patterns they saw developing across the globe.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Japan and China after Second World War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Japan and China after Second World War - Essay Example Decades after the war, Japan remains struggling with their recovery. United States, with its self-vested interest, had helped it established its Self-Defense Force. With its continuous effort to revive, Japan's economy flourished resulting to a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party, but also in severe pollution. It's relation with the Soviet Union as well as China had normalized. But then, its economy was again shocked with the oil crisis on 1973 that had led it to developed long-term strategies for entering existing markets by shifting into high technology industry (Smith). China, when it was just about the route of progression, had endured devastation having blood shed and disgrace as their biggest injury under Japanese invaders. With the United States supporting them towards the war, providing their battle necessities from training to material support, they managed to defeat their aggressor. Despite the win, still the war had caused the country's exhaustion. As it tries to recover, further havoc had successively followed.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Court Procedures 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Court Procedures 1 - Essay Example Unjustified questioning and searches were common and caused tension in the pre-revolutionary America. Not every arrest, annexation or search should be made pursuant to a legitimately effected warrant. The Supreme Court specifies that police might conduct searches or arrests without necessarily producing a warrant so long as the circumstances justifies and/or necessitates such seizures or arrests (exigent circumstance). Consequently, felonies and searches incident to legalized arrest are excluded from the 4th amendment. In a legal proceeding, equity between the victim and the offender and the rule of law must be upheld. The present form of jurisprudence exists to inform about imperative aspects in criminal justice including their rights, responsibilities and trial forms such as trial by compurgation and trial by battle. Commonly, police officers must produce a warrant of arrest when arresting a suspect and prosecution action follows unless the charge(s) against the individual are dismissed. The Miranda requires that the police inform a person in custody of their right to remain silent during a criminal proceeding and inform them that anything said might be used as evidence against them in a court. The chapter presents the case of North v. Russell where the supreme court upheld a layperson’s decision to sentence North to 30 days imprisonment for drunk driving. It considered that the layperson was justified to preside over the case due to inaccessibility of higher courts. Chapter 2 explores the rights, responsibilities and rules governing the use of engine-powered machines and roads. It specifies the occasions under which the police are authorized to conduct an arrest or seizure of a vehicle and its occupants. A pat down is legitimate at a police station if an officer suspects that the suspect is armed, the automobile is an instrumentality of the time, the recent occupant of the vehicle is

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Human Resource

Human Resource Human Resource (H.R): Introduction The word â€Å"manage† as used in business can simply be defined as the art of dealing with people with the aim of bringing the best out of then so as to improve the productivity of the business. It is not easy to manage some of the things we have that have no life let alone people. People are complex in themselves and to have different people from different backgrounds to work together can prove to be very difficult. It is however possible for people to come together for a common goal. It does not matter how they are going to achieve their goal but the common thing that they want to achieve plays a very important role in taming people to put their differences aside and work together. Rothwell (2008, p.23) argues that it is mandatory for a leader in a business to be very good at people-skills for it is the people working at the business that are the most important people in the business. Without employees in a business then the business does not achieve its goals. They are the people that make things move. There is therefore no escaping people-skills if a business venture is to highly perform. â€Å"Management is nothing more than motivating other people†. These are the words of Lee Iacocca – former CEO Chrysler. It is therefore important for a manager to have some basic tips on how to manage people. It is vital that a manager delegates most of the objectives set to achieve so that he or she gets time to manage the team he or she has been given to manage. It also helps the manager to clear his or her mind. It is very important that the person who delegates has a clear head on his or her shoulders. Pearce and Conger (2002, p.41) identify that one of the most important â€Å"X factor† is team work. A strong team delivers most of the things put before it. This paper will focus on teamwork and critically analyse it on how it can be used to improve performance. When people come together, more ideas are bound to be generated, there is strength in numbers and also there is the variety being applied in order to achieve a common objective. Whenever humans come together with a common objective there is very little that they cannot do. It is important that the tem leader gets to have a one on one understanding with each of the team members so as to know the individual strengths of the team members. It is in this way that the responsibilities are divided. One does what they are good at but with the conscious awareness that he or she is only but a piece of a jigsaw, that there are others that are also specialising in their area of expertise to complete the jig saw into one complete thing that makes economic and objective sense (Michaels, 1994, p.45). The only reason a company would invest in its people is so as to enhance performance of the business. They are the key players in an organisation and should be handled with care. There are various ways in which organisations or businesses entice and build their employees so as to achieve higher quality and quantity performance. A business is judged by its outcome. It is the various people employed to work for the venture equipped with the spirit of teamwork that determine the performance of the business. It is quite clear that team work is then a very important factor as it is the ship in which if the business sails, it will never drown or subdue to the waves of furious business challenges. The winning team It is always feels good to be associated with winning. It makes one feel like they are pursuing a worthy cause. If a team is to be put together in a business then it better be a winning team. It is not enough to hire professionals who know what they are supposed to do at exactly which time to have a winning team but recruiting a group of people who will work together in the most efficient of ways. A team that has people who share the same destination work extremely well with each other. It is only when people in a team do not share a vision that they do not work well. A team is defined by the togetherness in achieving the specific goals and objectives of a business. When people share a vision then what do they have to fight over and not work together? Nothing. Differences may exist between individuals but for as long as they have a common goal then they can do anything despite their differences. In order for a team to have a common goal, then it is good practice for members to meet in order to discuss the various projects that have to be undertaken. The secret behind managing people is in a business is to make the employees or the team members feel like they coined and own the business objectives, vision and mission. Koestenbaum (2002, p.74) reveals that this will help people to have a common sense of direction. This implies that he visions, missions and objectives of a business need to have a strong base upon which, a strong team is built. Any team has problems but it is up to the team leader to be very sensitive to any slight behavioural change that would reduce the performance of the team in the long run. The team leader as a people manager should also talk to the team members and encourage them. When one is given motivation to do something, a person is performs even better as they flourish in the though that it is not only him or her that believes he or she can do it but also the team leader. There are teams made up of simple human beings like any human being but thee is always something about the teams. They have the attitude that they were born to win. An example of one such team is â€Å"Manchester United Football Team†. They believe that they are winners. When a person believes something, it is very difficult for them not to make it a reality. It is important that people managing people instil a winning attitude in their team members (Lawler et al., 2004, p.14). It goes a long way in building a strong competent team. How Teamwork affects other key performance areas This can be illustrated by a diagram which is shown below: According to Vandenberg and Lance (1992, p.156), under managing self we have several issues that are worth elaborating and they are eight in number. The very first one is the creative nature and originality of the self. Teamwork improves the ability of a person to get creative and think of ways to get out of tasks presented to him or her that are challenging. This is because the person is always trying to get out of something and always jogging his or her mind to get out of something. The person also wants to be original. It is very difficult to find unethical leadership in a person who leads a team or even the team member himself or herself. A person is always out to improve and to build the winning team so as to achieve the objectives of the business and also get to improve the performance of the team. Performance is core in teams so the self is built to consider ethics when tackling organisational challenges (Walker, 2002, p.36). It is the people around us that build us. Man is no island. People in good teams have been found to have a better way of communication and also have the character to go with this. For a good team to succeed, the members that comprise it have to be in constant communication with each other. A marriage is a good example of a team. Whenever there is breakdown of communication in a marriage then it becomes difficult for things to move. Good marriages are ones in which there is constant effective communication going on, on the regular (West, 2004, p.6). It is through teamwork that a person becomes effective in communication and also gets to know the character he or she should acquire in order to succeed in the business world. Managing people is not only about managing other people but also managing the self. Team work greatly helps in doing this. In teams, it is normal for people to make contributions that they own in order to steer their objective forward. This helps to build a person I problem solving skills which is a factor important to have in the business world. Williams and Anderson , (1991, p.604) concurs that the values of the self are also improved or built. In good effective teams, good values are encouraged as undesirable ones are normally discouraged. This helps a person to always focus on having good values whose practice leads to them sticking. Effective teams have brainstorming sessions where team members contribute in order to make the achievement of their objectives a success. This helps a person to improve their thinking capacities and also helps team members to think in a way that optimises the performance of the business (Blau, 1985, p.279). It gives the individual that deliberate way of thinking that involves thinking in a certain direction. Team members benefit by being in such teams. For a team to succeed then the personalities of the persons in it need to be on point. It is the work personality that helps team members to be able to work through their differences with that common vision in mind. When members learn the personality they need to have in order to work together they will definitely practice this as all of them want to get to the goal so bad. In life, it really matters how badly, one wants to get something as if one does not want something so badly, they will not put differences aside, they will not work hard enough and they will not value input from team members. Under managing people, there are four key areas that need to be discussed and team work is a major component or ingredient in managing people. Arbinger Institute (2002, p.9) suggests that there is team work, the diversity of people, transformed leadership and motivating people. Team work is intertwined with the three issues as it is in team work that people are motivated to push on in order to improve performance. Leadership Leadership is also transformed in team work as most of the time, it is not the team members that learn from the team leader but it is the team leader most of the time rather than not that learn from the team members (National Institute of Social Work, 1996, p.11). The members teach the leaders on hoe to lead knowingly or unknowingly. This gives birth to a new way of leading especially if the leader of a tea listens to his members. Teams can be made up of a rich diversity of people which can either be used to achieve the objectives of a business or also allow the differences that exist within to ruin the team. In International Companies, recruitment as in the type of the company is done at an international level. This means that people will be mixed from different cultures and backgrounds and also different races as well (Block, 1996, p.33). It is quite challenging building a team of people of the same background. It is quite tasking to build a team that comprises of different people. People of one background have been seen to appreciate the music from another background even when they do not know what they are saying. It is in this regard that a team leader needs to direct his team members to be able to dance to the same tune which is synonymous to achieving the same objectives of the business. Such teams come to appreciate diversity. They come to understand that people are different but sure can work together in order to achieve a common goal. Brown and Wardle (1996, p.12) argues that managing work is also another factor that is intertwined with team work. In order to manage a team then the work also has to be managed; the work needs to be kept track of. It is very important that work goes on smoothly in a team even when the management of the team has to be changed for this purpose. Managing work involves the judgement of decisions and also the ability to manage the decision. A decision can be evaluated on the basis of the results of the work that is done or the work that has been achieved in order. The team can easily be evaluated on the same based on the decisions the team made. A team can be judged based on the decisions they made. The decisions they make have to improve performance in the business or organisation (Covey, 2009, p.62). Once the decision is made, then it needs to be managed. When a decision is not managed, then it beats logic to have made the decision in the first place. It is important that team members carry follow through their decisions in order to achieve the task given to undertake. A good team is one that manages the team members well. A strong human resource management is a must in strong teams. Whenever the human resource in a team is good, there are very slim chances of a team not doing its best to accomplish whatever task that is presented before them. We have seen that people are very important and it is through people that a business gets to achieve its objectives. According to Dimma (2007, p.47), a good human resource department forming part of a team will value the employee and make that employee as reasonably comfortable as possible in order for the business to achieve its objectives. A good human resource sub team will provide incentives to persons working in their business; give them a reason to turn down job offers given by other businesses or companies. Good teams also ensure that they manage the information they have in a way to improve performance rather than sitting on information. It is the information we gather in business or in life that assist us in making decisions hence the word informed decision. It is important that a team acts on the basis that it has information. Innovation, Priority management and Objective setting are al components of managing work but also relate to team work (Harrison, 1972, p.28). It is in teams that innovative ideas, decisions and work emerge from. This is because of the team aspect. Teams also prioritise in terms of work so as not to leave important work pending for a long time than usual. It is important that a team sets for itself objectives aside from the objectives of the business so as to also have a common goal in terms of work. Team building and Team Work Companies have been seen to spend quite a lot of money so as to improve the team building skills of their employees. This goes on to show just how important team work is important in the world we live in today especially in the business world. It is essential that a manager has team building skills as it is part and parcel of managing people. It is an important part of managing people. The same people can work by themselves but achieve less productivity. A good, strong team is one in which these same people come together and work towards a goal but perform much better than when they were working on an individual basis. This is the idea behind merging. Some companies merge because together, they have more yields and perform on a different level, giving their customers higher quality of service than when the companies were doing it on their own (Iverson and Roy, 1994, p.39). This is the secret of synergy. Individuals are different but synergised so as to achieve optimum performance. In team building, there are two very important factors to consider. One factor that we have to appreciate in team building is the diversity that exists in terms of the personalities that exist and also the skills. The different people have to be in such a way that they fully exploit their potential to the last drop but again, the weaknesses of the same people are covered for by the other people‘s strengths. Their different personalities have to be in a way that they balance out. In a good team, all ideas, works and decisions in a team made by different individuals are directed to a common purpose either created within the team or the objectives of the business (Goodwin, 2005, p.91). The goals have to be clearly understood by the team members. When some team members get it while others don’t then already there is a loophole and the team is bound to fail because of a different set of goals embedded in the different team members’ minds. Team building Activities aimed at team building are very important so as to assist in the establishment of a strong team. To have a great team takes a lot of hard work, dedication and determination. Team building activities are therefore very important in that they assist in the building of a great team. It is important that a team is led by someone but not just anyone but a good leader. It may not help that a team has clearly understood the objectives, they ma have the same personality thus resulting in conflicts mostly because of fighting (Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001, p.29). If everyone in a team wants to be a leader then we have a problem as each team member will be acting so as to show how he or she can dominate people. This has led to in-house fighting on too many an instance. There are many factors that have to be overcome to have a good team which is reason the more for team building activities to be taken seriously. There are basic techniques that have to be in place for an effective team to be built. The most obvious one is that all the team members need to have understood and clearly have the goals and objectives behind having the team and also the goals and objectives behind having the business or organisation. There also has to be a clear chain of command in that every single team member is completely aware of their duties and responsibilities and there should be no grey area in this. All the roles have to be distinct so that in the case that there is competition over a certain role then the role needs to be split into smaller distinct roles so as to avoid conflict in the team built. A team leader also needs to be able to spend time with his or her team members so as to understand the various personalities and skills he or she has in the team and also appreciate the same. When a team leader is fair, open, honest and loyal then it becomes a little bit easier to have the same back from the employees or team members. This may be summarised to leading by example. It is in team building activities that members learn how to trust each other and also be open with each other. When this is done then they work together better. The activities should have social times deliberately to prompt people to bond and share their experiences. They get to know each other better which is good for the business as this will help them accommodate each other’s faults but accentuating their strengths (Brion, 1989, p.32). This is what we want to achieve by having a team working on something. An example of one such activity is scheduling the week such that a specific day of the week is set aside so that employees or team members can share lunch. It is over this that they bond. The secret to having an effective team built is also to have the practice of involving the team members in the decision making process so that they feel like they own the decision. When one owns something, it is very difficult for them not to take care of it and watch it grow. The goal can be set in a group. The tactics to be used to undertake in undertaking challenges presented to a team are also brainstormed by the team with them being encouraged to give possible solutions. This leads to the obligated feeling of a team member since a sense of ownership has been cultivated in him or her, which leads to the commitment of team leaders to the cause of the team. There is also need to keep the lines of communication open in a team. It is through this that a team can succeed. Conclusion In today’s world, it is not so fashionable to do things on an individual basis as performance is result driven. The world expects so much from people that the only way the same expectation can be met is through team work. Most of the world’s greatest achievements have been accomplished because of team work. It is very difficult to achieve the results desired in a business single handily. It will have to be in a team. Team work is a very important aspect of business (Curry, et al., 1986, p.851). This explains why businesses always want to now if one is a team player before recruiting them into their companies. Business owners will look at a person’s history to be able to establish whether they are team players or not. It is quite normal in the global arena to find teams in businesses as people have appreciated strength in numbers. To achieve almost perfection in a business and to boost sales or improve the quality of businesses, team work is essential. It is important to have team skills whether one will eventually be a team member or a team leader (Kelley, 1999, p.63). A team leader is a leader to the extent of the performance of his or her team. A team leader is always a member of another team only on a different level. It is quite clear that the world revolves in team work. It is safe to say that the world is a family of teams; its just that they have different objectives and different personalities and skills. 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Curry, J., Wakefield, D., Price, J., Mueller, C 1986, On the causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 29, No.4, pp.847-858. Dimma, W.A 2007, Tougher Boards For Tougher Times: Corporate Governance In The Post- Enron Era, Mombay: Wiley-India. Goodwin, N 2005, Leadership in health care: a European perspective, New York: Routledge. Gratton, L., Hailey, V.H., Stiles, P 1999, Strategic human resource management: corporate rhetoric and human reality, Cambridge: Oxford University Press. Hare, S.E., Hare, A.P 1996, SYMLOG field theory: organizational consultation, value differences, personality and social perception, Michigan: Praeger. Harrison, R 1972, Understanding your organization’s character, Harvard Business Review, pp.22-32.. Hersey, P., Blanchard, K.H 1988. Management of organizational behavior: utilizing human resources, 5th ed., London: Prentice-Hall. 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Rothwell, W.J 2008, Human Resource Transformation: Demonstrating Strategic Leadership in the Face of Future Trends, Edinburgh: Davies-Black Publishing. Roth, K.K 2004, Executive Leadership Attributes Relating to Transformed Organizational Human Resource Services: A Study of Transformational Leadership, Amsterdam: Universal-Publishers. Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, J., Osborn, R 1994, Managing Organizational Behavior, New York, NY: Wiley Sons. Stogdill, R.M 1974, Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research, New York, NY: Free Press. Storey, J 2004, Leadership in organizations: current issues and key trends, London: Routledge. Vandenberg, R., Lance, C 1992, Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, Journal of Management, Vol. 18, No.1, pp.153-67 Walker, J 2002, Ready, Aim, Inspire!: 101 Quotes on Leadership Teamwork, Washington: iUniverse. West, W.A 2004, Effective teamwork: practical lessons from organizational research, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley-Blackwell,. Williams, L.J., Anderson, S.E 1991, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors, Journal of Management, Vol. 17, No.3, pp.601-17.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Importance of Schools Essay

Insertion of Article 25-A in the Constitution has guaranteed the provision of free and compulsory education by the state to all children in the age cohort of 5 to 16 years. The 18th amendment and insertion of Article 25-A has the potential to accelerate the pace of achievement of national and international targets towards the achievements of MDGs since right to free and compulsory education has been recognized. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the lack of appropriate public sector educational institutes leads to the high ratio of drop out from schools. The available public sector schools in KP are not able to support high influx of students passing out from primary schools. Each second union council in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province has no high school for girls, leaving thousands of female students to drop out after completing primary education. Latest official data reveals that around 505 out of the total 990 union councils in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have no high school for girls sho wing the apathy of the successive governments towards female education in the militancy-ravaged province. Similarly, 158 union councils have no high schools for boys. In the absence of high schools both for girls and boys majority of the students in the respective areas have no option but to stop going to schools after completing primary education. Unfortunately, on one hand a number of educational institutions, particularly for girls, were blown up or torched in the militant-infested districts of the province while on other the government in past failed to pay heed to establishment of high schools to boost the already deteriorating standard of education. The insecurity and lack of schools have increased the dropout rate of the children in early age. Sitting aside the far-off districts like inaccessible Kohistan and Dir, even the capital city of Peshawar is short of educational institutions. Out of total 93 union councils in Peshawar, about 55 have no high school for girls while 32 of them are without high school for boys, according to the data. Out of 75 union councils in Mardan the sec ond largest city in KP, 34 have no high school for girls and 15 have no high school for boys. The Kohistan district has total 38 union councils but only one of them has a high school for girls. Similarly, its 24 union councils have no high schools for boys. Bannu has 47 union councils and among them 23 have no high school for girls and 15 are without high school for boys. Similarly, 41 union councils in Swat, 21 in Abbottabad, 23 in Chitral, 27 in Charsadda, 14 in Dera Ismail Khan, 10 in  Lower Dir, 33 in Mansehra, 24 in Nowshera, 23 in Lakki, 16 in Battagram, 20 in Upper Dir, 23 in Shangla and 13 in Hangu have no high schools for girls. According to policy analysis report from UNESCO in 2012, there are about 2,845,843 students enrolled at primary level throughout KP, while only 1,077,597 at high schools in KP. This shows that almost 50% get dropped out after primary schools due to one reason or another, the most prevailing of which is the huge difference in the number of institutes both at primary and high level leads to the drop out of most of the students due to the non-availability of high schools in their locality or the high schools available do not have the facilities to accommodate the large number of students. Majority of the population cannot afford the fee structures of private schools so they are unwillingly compelled to discontinue the education of their children, and leaving no option but to involve their children in child labor. The lack of High Schools in the locality also leads to dropout. Due to cultural norms and values people mostly don’t send their female children to schools far from them.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Primary and Secondary Sources

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES What is Primary Sources? * Primary sources  are original  materials. Generally, primary sources are not accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. * Information for which the writer has no personal knowledge is not primary, although it may be used by historians in the absence of a primary source. * Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented. Often these sources are created at the time when the events or conditions are occurring. Examples of Primary Sources: * archives and manuscript material * photographs, audio recordings, video recordings, films * journals, letters and diaries * speeches * scrapbooks * published books, newspapers and magazine clippings published at the time * government publications * oral histories * records of organizations * autobiographies and memoi rs * printed ephemera * artifacts, e. g. clothing, costumes, furniture * research data, e. g. public opinion polls What is Secondary Sources? * Offer an interpretation or analysis  of the primary source materials. * Second hand accounts of historical events. Secondary sources are works of synthesis and interpretation based upon primary sources and the work of other authors. They may take a variety of forms. The authors of secondary sources develop their interpretations and narratives of events based on primary sources, that is, documents and other evidence created by participants or eyewitnesses.  ¦ Examples of Secondary Sources: * articles, * biographies, * books, * textbooks, * Reports on events, etc. THINGS TO ASK WHEN EVALUATING PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES: * How does the author know these details (names, dates, and times)? Was the author present at the event or soon on the scene? * Where this information does came from? Eyewitness accounts? Reports written by the others? * Are the author’s conclusion based on a single piece of evidence, or have many sources been taken into account? SOME TECHNIQUES FOR TESTING THE AUTHENTICITY OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES: * Check the currency of secondary sources. * Make certain primary sources are housed in a reputable archive and/or have been indexed or catalogue by experts in the source’s discipline. * Research the authority and credentials of journal article author. Cross check to see if others researches agree with your critique. HOW CAN I TELL IF SOMETHING IS A SECONDARY SOURCE? As with any research, examine the document or article carefully for accuracy and credibility. Use the following questions to help you determine whether or not you are using a credible secondary source. AUTHORS: * How does the author know what he/she knows? * Does his/her knowledge stem from personal experience or having read about and analyzed an event? * Does the author cite several other (published) reports? CONTENT : Why is the information being provided or the article written? * Are there references to other writings on this topic? * Is the author interpreting previous events? * Does the information come from personal experience or other’s accounts? CURRENCY: * Is the date of publication evident? * Is the date of publication close to the event described or was it written much later? Sources: * http://www. yale. edu/collections_collaborative/primarysources/primarysources. html * http://www. mitchellteachers. org * http://www. slideshare. net/stellacomans/primary-and-secondary-sources-7878126